Inicio INTERNACIONAL ¿Cuán presente está la «sostenibilidad» en empresas locales?

¿Cuán presente está la «sostenibilidad» en empresas locales?

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Los derechos humanos, el cambio climático, la huella de carbono y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de las Naciones Unidas al 2030 . ¿Qué tan presentes están en los directorios del Perú?

Cuatro grandes asuntos comienzan a estar en agenda en los directorios de las compañías que mayores ingresos generan en el mundo, así como en la región y en el Perú. Los derechos humanos, el cambio climático como riesgo financiero, las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero medidas a través de la huella de carbono y la alineación de las metas del negocio a los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) de las Naciones Unidas son cada vez más considerados en los reportes de sostenibilidad corporativa.

Este es una de las principales constataciones del reporte “El camino por recorrer” del 2017 elaborado por la consultora KPMG en 49 países, en base a entrevistas y revisión de reportes de sostenibilidad corporativa y sitios web de las 100 empresas que más ingresos generan en cada uno (N100) y de las 250 que integran el ránking global Fortune 500 (G250). En efecto, es la primera vez que la consultora incluye estos cuatro ámbitos como indicadores del informe, que ya va por su décima edición bienal. ¿Cuánto les preocupan a las corporaciones peruanas y por qué?

LAS PERSONAS COMO EJE

En el reporte de desempeño de derechos humanos, el Perú está por debajo del nivel global y regional. Pero no es un asunto ajeno a los inversionistas, observa Melania Ramos, gerenta de Análisis de Prima AFP, quien precisa que es una labor de rigor preguntar a las grandes empresas si han experimentado casos de trabajo infantil o informal, reclamos de trabajadores o huelgas, si cuentan con programas de apoyo a sus comunidades cercanas y de capacitación o prevención de accidentes. Incluso se consulta si cuentan con encuestas de clima laboral y cuáles son sus respectivos resultados.

Al respecto, Luis Eduardo Falen, analista senior de Research de Intéligo, anota que dichas consultas son habituales en los ‘conference calls’ con las gerencias de las empresas. En el caso del sector minero -que es el que más reporta su desempeño en sostenibilidad según el informe de KPMG- los compradores están preocupados por la trazabilidad de los metales, en particular, porque no provengan de operaciones ilegales.

También por la relación con las comunidades, que a su juicio, derivará en vínculos más horizontales con las empresas. “Si una empresa quiere crecer y prosperar, no solo debe mantener contentos a los accionistas, sino compartir los beneficios con los grupos vinculados a ella y asegurar la creación de valor de manera sostenible y sostenida”, acota Paúl Lira, director de Estándares Crediticios de Equilibrium. Diana Méndez, directora ejecutiva de Responde, apunta que esta prioridad también alcanza a las brechas de género.

RIESGO CLIMÁTICO

El informe de KPMG revela que apenas el 11% de las 100 empresas que más ingresos generan en el Perú considera al cambio climático como un riesgo financiero. Esta realidad puede que se explique por la incertidumbre que supone. “Las empresas se preguntan cuánto deberían invertir. Encuentran difícil medir el costo futuro”, explica Ramos.

Pero la preocupación sí existe del lado de los inversionistas, ya que, tras la firma del Acuerdo de París, se esperan cambios regulatorios en los mercados que exigen tomarlos en cuenta, acota.

Al respecto, Rosario Calderón, socia de Advisory de KPMG en el Perú, acota que el cambio climático podría causar una reducción del 9% del PBI global de no actuar para adaptarse y mitigar los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI), causantes del calentamiento global. A nivel global -entre el top 250 de Fortune- la práctica de reportar este ámbito tampoco alcanza a la mayoría, según el informe.

NO DEJAR HUELLA (DE CARBONO)

Sobre este indicador, relacionado con la práctica de medir y reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) que genera la actividad empresarial, Perú está sobre el promedio global. Aun así, Arturo Caballero, gerente de la consultora A2G, repara que el análisis realizado por el Programa de Inversión Responsable y la PUCP sobre los reportes de sostenibilidad presentados por las empresas públicas a la Superintendencia del Mercado de Valores en marzo pasado reveló que aún es necesario educar sobre el tema.

“Había mucha información inexacta, desactualizada o errada”, ilustra.

En ese sentido, observa que es necesario entender a los GEI como riesgos financieros para las empresas en la medida que la necesidad de mitigarlos está llevando a los gobiernos a crear impuestos, como ha sucedido en México.

Es probable que esta regulación haya incidido el incremento exponencial de la práctica de reportar el desempeño en sostenibilidad corporativa en ese país.

VISIÓN PLANETARIA

¿Vinculan las empresas sus metas de negocio a los 17 ODS de las Naciones Unidas? KPMG identificó que poco más de un tercio del N100 peruano y del G250 abrazan estas aspiraciones universales al 2030. Calderón destaca el alcance, a un año de su implementación. “Da esperanza”, comenta, sobre su total adopción y consecución. Los ODS van del fin de la pobreza, el hambre cero, la energía asequible y no contaminante hasta la creación de paz, justicia e instituciones sólidas.

Baltazar Caravedo, consultor del Grupo SASE, cuestiona el resultado. “¿Cómo se manifiesta el vínculo?”, pregunta. En ese sentido, Méndez apunta que los ODS llaman a las empresas a hablar de los impactos que generan y no tanto de los programas o actividades desarrollados. “Esta nueva forma de rendir cuentas lleva a las organizaciones a buscar siempre el retorno para las partes involucradas y gestionar bajo un enfoque de resultados”, remata.

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